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By John Grimes

It includes etymological roots and the meanings of phrases primary to epistemology, metaphysics, and useful teachings of the heterodox and orthodox faculties of Indian philosophy. Cross-referncing has been supplied and numerous charts are integrated that supply information about relationships, different types, and sourcebooks appropriate to the person faculties. This new and revised 3rd variation provides a accomplished dictionary of Indian philosophical phrases, supplying the phrases in either devanagari and roman transliteration in addition to an English translation. It deals precise meanings of phrases used as technical phrases inside of specific philosophical structures.

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How then can it be wrong for someone ordained to run the affairs of the state? 6 Many Buddhist scriptures popularly recited during the Nara period do encour­ age sovereigns to receive precepts? However, the reference is to the precepts tor lay practitioners; that is, rulers are encouraged to be exemplary lay patrons of the Sangha, thereby ensuring the Sangha's autonomy from secular authority. The scriptures were by no means intended as a justification for a priest or nun to be enthroned as an emperor or empress.

In these works he strives to interpret the seemingly straightforward doctrinal statements in INTRODUCTION 13 exoteric scriptures as metaphorical expressions of the meditative experiences of the Buddhas and bodhisattvas through which they generate their powers. In that sense, even the prosaic language of exoteric texts can be esoteric, serving a ritual function analogous to mantra. Therefore, according to Kiikai, by reading exoteric scriptures side by side with esoteric texts, which identifY the ritual actions necessary to replicate the meditative experience of a divinity, one can unveil the secrets hidden in deep levels of the exoteric texts.

Night and day I exhaust myself thinking of those who are suffering. It is said that the Prajiiii-piiramitii (Perfection ofWisdom) is the mother of all the Buddhas. When I, the Son of Heaven, recite it, the nation is safe from invasions and rebellions; when my people invoke it, their households are protected from the demons of illness. Let us rely on its compassionate power to save us from our present misfortune. I therefore encourage all those in every province under heaven, both men and women, both young and old, constantly to recite the Prajiiii-piiramitii.

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