By Hamish Denny, Steve Butterworth
Authoritative consultant to developments in small animal orthopaedic surgical procedure. presents a complete evaluate of orthopaedic and spinal stipulations within the puppy or cat. incorporates a nearby method of difficulties that permits the reader to take advantage of it as a speedy reference. Illustrations. for college kids taking additional skills in orthopedics and veterinarians. prior version: cc1993.
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Additional info for A Guide to Canine and Feline Orthopaedic Surgery
6). Subchondral bone sclerosis tends to be seen in long-standing cases. However, this probably only reflects the insensitivity of the standard radiograph in detecting this change. Microfocal radiographical studies have shown that this change is not the reserve of chronic OA. Intra- or periarticular mineralisation is a fairly frequent h d i n g in OA. The deposits may be in cartilage,synovium,tendons,ligaments or menisci. Studies in man have revealed that there may be several mechanisms at work in the formation of these deposits and their importance is unknown.
The femoral neck in hip OA. g. distal pole of the patella in stifle OA. Each joint tends to have its own specific pattern with respect to osteophyte formation (Fig. 6). Subchondral bone sclerosis tends to be seen in long-standing cases. However, this probably only reflects the insensitivity of the standard radiograph in detecting this change. Microfocal radiographical studies have shown that this change is not the reserve of chronic OA. Intra- or periarticular mineralisation is a fairly frequent h d i n g in OA.
Erosive lesions vary in size and shape and may be difficult to distinguishfrom subchondral cysts. The latter are another occasional feature of OA but are more often seen in man and horses than dogs. They have a sharp border and may appear to communicate with the joint space. Arthrocentesis Synovial fluid from osteoarthritic joints tends to be found in normal or increased volumes, with normal or low viscosity (resulting from effusion rather than a qualitative change in the hyaluronic acid content), and a total cell count of up to 5 x 109/1with less than 5% polymorphs (though both of these parameters may be elevated in joints showing an acute flare-up).