By Mary Boyce
This quantity is a part of a three-volume paintings tracing the heritage of Zoroastrianism. within the set, literary, archaeological and numismatic facts is drawn on and native advancements are explored. research is made up of the Zoroastrian contributions to Hellenistic proposal and to Judaism, Christianity and Mithraism. An excursus presents a reassessment of the Zoroastrian pseudepigrapha.
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Extra resources for A History of Zoroastrianism: Volume 1, The Early Period
In both India and Iran to possess rta or asa, to be rtavan or asavan, was to be a just and upright being; and when used of the dead these words implied that the departed was blessed in the hereafter, having attained the Paradise which he deserved. 31 In the Vedas rta is opposed to the negative anrta, 32 with which is associated druh "falsehood". druj, the man who is false to the pact he has made ;33 and it is presumably because such falsehood is a breach of moral asa that the god came to be regarded by extension as the protector of asa in all its aspects-a role of such grandeur that 28 The later Indian texts inevitably yield a number of over-subtle elaborations, with Mitra as with other gods, to which, in isolation, no weight can be attached.
31). Yt. 102, 129-JI. See the passages cited by him in] AOS LXXX, 311-2. a do not .. do their fighting themselves. The fighting is done by lndra", Thieme, "The concept of Mitra in Aryan belief", Mithraic Studies I, ed. Hinnells, JO. 63 Yt. 29. 4cd, cited by Thieme, art. cit. Jab, cited by Thieme, art. cit. 66 Yt. 7,82 et passim. This trait survives in the Parthian Manichaean texts, where the Third Messenger, identified with Mithra, has the epithet haziir-lasm "thousand-eyed". See Boyce in A Locust's Leg, Studies presented to S.
61 See Belenitsky, op. , 31, 49-50. 62 See Masson-Sarianidi, 152-3. , 137. 64 See ibid. 65 Burrow,] RAS 1973, 123-40, has argued that a small number of words, including the theologically highly important daeva, are properly Indian, or rather "proto-Indoaryan"; that they belonged, that is, to those Indians who are held to have entered Iran first, being taken over from them in due course by the conquering Iranians. This thesis may well be tenable for some daevic expressions (on which see further below, Ch.