By Maribel Fierro
Абд ар-Рахман III — эмир с 912 года, халиф с 929 года из династии кордовских Омейядов. Восстановил полураспавшийся при его предшественниках Кордовский эмират. В 931 году взял Сеуту, в 932 году — Толедо. С 955 года заставил королей Леона и Наварры платить дань. Отвоевал у Фатимидов часть Магриба (Северная Африка). Имел баскские корни (басками были его мать и мать отца).Абдаррахман заботился о развитии культуры и об усилении политической мощи, покровительствуя развитию сельского хозяйства, ремесла, торговли, литературы и просвещения. Упорядочил финансы, поощрял строительство. При нем были созданы крупные памятники искусства в столице и в других городах. Кордова стала одним из самых прекрасных городов мира; в этом городе было около полумиллиона жителей. Правление Абдаррахмана III — апогей расцвета аль-Андалуса и кордовских Омейядов.
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Extra info for Abd al-Rahman III
Seville was besieged for several months and in December 913, it was conquered by the chamberlain Badr. The walls, which had been built by ‘Abd al-Rahman II after the Viking attack, were destroyed and a loyal governor was appointed. There, some of Ibn Hafsun’s followers were Christians and the heads of those killed were sent to Cordoba as trophies. In Algeciras, the ships belonging to Ibn Hafsun that brought provisions from North Africa (probably from the Fatimids, with whom Ibn Hafsun had established contact) were all destroyed.
Nor were those who stayed in Cordoba always to be trusted. One Habil ibn Habil, for example, escaped in 914 and returned to his fortress of Esteban. The emir had to send his commander Ibn Abi ‘Abda against him. On 7 August 913, the de facto independent ruler of Seville, ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Ibrahim ibn Hajjaj, died and the succession led to division among his relatives. His brother Muhammad, who had ruled the town of Carmona, offered ‘Abd al-Rahman III his help to fight Ahmad ibn Maslama, whom the people of Seville had elected as their ruler.
He was a contemporary of the so-called Cordoban martyrs, whose Christian resistance movement, as we have seen, was a reaction against the increasing Islamicization of the society in which they lived. Malikism spread in al-Andalus during the ninth century and became its official doctrine in the tenth century. Under Malikism, free non-Arabs who converted to Islam were regarded as clients of the Muslim community as a whole, and not of the individual or group with whom they had renounced their former religion.