By Ivar Lodemel, Amilcar Moreira
The decade of the 20 th century was once marked via a shift in how welfare-states take care of these on the backside of the source of revenue ladder. This shift concerned the introduction/strengthening of work-obligations as a for receiving minimal source of revenue merits - which, in a few international locations, used to be complemented by means of efforts to assist recipients go back to the labour marketplace, specifically throughout the funding in energetic labour marketplace guidelines (ALMP).
Based on case-studies of advancements within the US and 8 eu international locations (UK, Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Germany, France, Portugal and the Czech Republic), this publication argues that this primary set of reforms was once by means of a moment wave of reforms that, while deepening the trail in the direction of the focal point on paintings, brings very important thoughts- be it the instruments used to assist recipients again to the labour markets (ex., monetary incentives) and in how activation guidelines are added (ex., integration of profit and employment services).
Looking on the array of advancements brought in this interval, we determine key traits.
The first matters the strengthening of the position of the industry within the governance of activation, that is seen within the strengthening of the focal point on paintings, or the marketisation of employment providers. the second one, issues a flow in the direction of the individualisation of carrier supply, obvious within the enlargement of using own motion plans or in efforts to streamline provider supply.
Finally, we convey that the onset of the sovereign debt problem in Europe, has prompted a brand new wave of reforms. while tentative in simple terms, our research issues to a being concerned development of the curtailment or merits (Portugal) and activation providers (Netherlands, Czech Republic) to minimal source of revenue recipients and, in parallel, one more deepening of the point of interest on work-conditionality (UK and Norway).
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Additional resources for Activation or Workfare? Governance and the Neo-Liberal Convergence
Trickey, H. ) (2001). An offer you can’t refuse: Workfare in international perspective. Bristol, UK: Policy Press. Minas, R. (2009). Activation in integrated services? Bridging social and employment services in European countries (Working Paper No. 11). Cape Town, South Africa: Institute for Futures Studies. , & Øverbye, E. (2010). The territorial organisation of social assistance schemes in Europe. In Y. ), Rescaling social policies towards multilevel governance in Europe: Social assistance, activation and care for older people.
In I. Lødemel & H. ), An offer you can’t refuse: Workfare in international perspective (pp. 159–180). Bristol, UK: Policy Press. , & Bernard, P. (2003). Convergence or resilience? A hierarchical cluster analysis of the welfare regimes in advanced countries. Current Sociology, 51(5), 499–527. Sirovatka, T. (2007, February). Policy of activation in the Czech Republic: What effects on social citizenship? Paper presented at the CINEFOGO (Civil Society and New Forms of Governance in Europe) Network of Excellence Conference, Paris, France.
34, 224). In other words, the entrance criteria were ambiguous in the sense that arguments and documentation provided by a client to fulfill the criteria of reduced work capability could rather easily be used to instead suggest that one did not fit the criterion of being a prospective participant in the labor market. Furthermore, as the establishment of NAV offices and services that would be accessible to individuals across the country was a rigorous undertaking, the right to the program was assumed for those applicants fulfilling these criteria only if “the labour and welfare administration could offer a customised programme” (Lov om sosiale tjenester [Social Services Law], 2007, section 5A–1emphasis added).