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By Harvey M Deitel; Barbara Deitel

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C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. First punched card tabulating machines Magnetic core memory Mathematics of true/false variables First computer programmer Founded IBM Stored program concept ABC Harvard Mark I ENIAC Analytical Engine The Evolution o f Computers 43 Fill-in-the-Blanks Fill in the blanks in each of the following: 1. The slide rule was made extinct by the ___ . 2. Many important nineteenth-century computing developments were inspired by the success of in the Jacquard loom. ___ 3. The design of Babbage's corresponds closely to the organization of present-day computer systems.

The Evolution of Computers ml 25 c 0 E0 e- 0 u Figure 2 - 5 Leibniz's Stepped Reckoner. and mathematician Gottfried Leibniz modified Pascal's machine so that it coul d perform multi­ plication and division directly. Leibniz's machine represented a great stride forward i n the develop­ ment of automatic calculators. Leibniz's Stepped Reckoner (Figure 2 - 5 ) used a movable carriage operating on wheels. Multi­ plication was implemented as a series of addi­ tions performed automatically by the machine, and division was performed through subtraction.

The Third Generation: 1964-1970 The third generation was triggered by the intro­ duction of integrated circuits, in which the equivalent of h undreds and even thousands of transistors could be placed on a small silicon chip (Figure 2 - 20 ) . The use of these tiny chips in third generation computers dramatically reduced costs, size, and power requirements for electronic circuits. ) On April 7, 1 964, IBM made one of the most important announcements in the history of the Figure 2-20 The first commercially available integrated cir­ cuit, greatly enlarged.

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