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By Marshall Grossman

Grossman examines the narrative type of Paradise misplaced to find Milton's completely sleek notion of self. Banished from paradise, the epic poem's protagonists turn into "authors to themselves in all/Both what they pass judgement on and what they choose," left to create their very own tale with regards to the tale already written by means of God. Grossman believes the ensuing constitution of the poem needs to be understood within the context of seventeenth-century historic and theological advancements, particularly Bacon's inspiration of heritage as growth and Protestant theology's concept of the internal voice. The publication attracts upon fresh works in hermeneutics and analytic background to improve the argument that there's a universal constitution to the adventure of time in motion and in narrative. In constructing this thesis, Grossman attracts at the paintings Stephen Greenblatt, Ricoeur, Todorov, Genette, Derrida, and Lacan to build an unique examining of Paradise misplaced that may fascinate Miltonists, experts in seventeenth-century literature, and readers excited about narrative conception.

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It is precisely this context that Satan rejects. By denying divine creation, he, in effect, challenges the medium of discourse. His message of self continually exceeds and subsumes the context. In rhetorical terms he personifies irony, a challenge to the efficacy of language so general as to be able to manage only negation. The ironic cannot generate a narrative because it can only say this is not true. 13 Under the metaphors of discourse and authorship that control the presentation of subjectivity in Paradise Lost, Satan is a monologuist, who attempts self-affirmation by negating the very language in which the self is constituted.

It must always be asked, too, how far the interpretation is in agreement with faith. 582; my emphasis) One import of the Protestant interest in the text as a completed narrative to be read with constant reference between episodes is a movement away from the notion of a word immediately invested 18 Introduction with significance and toward the more modern apprehension of language as a transaction of words with other words. Thus William Whitaker justifies including the typological in the literal sense by arguing that the type and antitype are the metaphoric vehicle and tenor of a single text: [The Jewes] had indeed many things of a typical nature, the cloud, the passage through the sea, the water from the rock, the manna; which all were symbols to the pious of heavenly things.

As "authors to themselves" Adam and Eve write their lives in actions and become characters - that is, personalities - in the same way that fictional characters do. But just as fictional characters perform actions that are written by an author who transcends the text, Adam and Eve act within a specifically metaphoric relation to providence. They understand themselves to be authors insofar as they are like God, yet different. They recognize the difference between analogy and identity, and they write in a language supplied 35 "Authors to Themselves" by God.

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