By Bob Doneley
This can be a concise, functional and wonderfully illustrated e-book facing issues affecting the various physique areas and structures and overlaying anatomy, body structure, actual exam, scientific ideas and diagnostic tests. It is a quick reference for clinicians and a research advisor for undergraduate and post-graduate veterinary scholars.
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Additional info for Avian Medicine and Surgery in Practice: Companion and Aviary Birds
It also causes an increased excretion of urinary phosphate. Renal tubular secretion appears to play a role in the response, although decreased tubular reabsorption of phosphate also plays a part, at least in the laying hen. A third renal effect is the activation of vitamin D3 through the conversion of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. Vitamin D3 elevates plasma calcium and inorganic phosphorus by increasing small intestinal absorption of these minerals. It also works with PTH to increase bone resorption and decrease calcium excretion.
The presence of these signs should alert the clinician to the likelihood of respiratory compromise and great care must obviously be taken with handling such a patient. The physical examination 45 • Look at the bird’s posture. Many sick birds become hypothermic and attempt to conserve body heat and energy by fluffing their feathers, sitting still and sleeping more. These signs are often referred to as the ‘sick bird look’, but not all sick birds will display these signs. Evidence of a wing droop, lameness or reluctance to bear weight on one leg indicates a musculoskeletal problem.
The arrangement of specific cell types along the cords results in some structural zonation. The cortical cells release primarily corticosterone and a smaller amount of aldosterone, along with some cortisol and cortisone (the levels of both decline as the bird reaches maturity). As in mammals, the secretion of corticosterone is primarily regulated by ACTH Clinical anatomy and physiology 33 (corticotropin) that is released from the pituitary gland in response to CRF or AVT. e. via the renin–angiotensin system), although some control via the hypothalamus and pituitary gland is believed to occur.