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Additional resources for Becoming Criminal: The Socio-Cultural Origins of Law, Transgression, and Deviance

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This is further illustrated by Salmon when he uses the example of juvenile delinquency. The occurrence of delinquency in a population of juveniles is a low probability event, nonetheless, statistically relevant things can be said concerning explanations of the occurrence of delinquency, such as gang membership, socio economic deprivation and so on, none of which predict individual delinquents or delinquent events, but contribute to an explanation in virtue of their statistically assessed relevance: not their high or low absolute probability.

Nature is an embodiment of Reason’ (1910 Introduction Section III Part I § 2). : § 3). ‘The enquiry into the essential destiny of Reason – as far as it is considered in reference to the World – is identical with the question, what is the ultimate design of the World? : Part II § 1). This is not that kind of reason commonly attributed to a particular kind of person, but reason as the sum of all reality: reason and reality as identical to one another. This view follows from two postulates. First, that reality must be reasonable, else we should not be able to have any knowledge of it, second, that we may only have knowledge of that which is real.

Marx further believed that the ‘should’ of reason would result inevitably in the polarization of the two main classes – proletariat and bourgeoisie – the dawn of socialism, and justice. This historical repositioning of man in Hegel’s dialectic of reason we term Historical Materialism. The word ‘should’ alerts us to the specifically normative nature of Marx’s work and normativity is always teleological. As Macpherson has said of Marx’s normative teleology, [in Marx’s thought] the end purpose of man is to use and develop his uniquely human attributes or capacities.

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