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By Eugenio E. Muller, Giuseppe Nistico

Mind Messengers and the Pituitary

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Lo wt omoder ­ atedensitie so fpositiv efiber sar epresen ti nth einterna llaye ro fth e ME ,wherea s therear eonl ya fe wnerv eterminal si nth eexterna llayer . Inaddition ,PNMT-positiv eterminal sar epresen ti nth emesencephalon , pons,cerebellum ,medull aoblongata ,an dspina lcor d(Hokfel t et al,1984b) . g. g. A tth e momentn ospecifi cinhibitor so fΕ uptake ar eavailabl e(Fuller ,1982) . C. 3) . Mappingo fne wtype so fD Asystem swa smad epossibl eb yth edevelopmen to f IV. 3 5 Main Dopaminergic Pathways and Systems in the Rat Brain" System Cellso f origi n Projections Mesostriatal Substantia nigr a (A9 ) Ventral tegmenta l are a ( A10 ) Retrorubral nucleu s (A8 ) Caudate-putamen Ventral striatu m (nucleu s accum ­ bens), olfactor y tubercle , be d nucleus stria e terminali s Globus pallidu s Island o f Callej a Subthalamic nucleu s Mesolimbocortical Ventral tegmenta l are a ( A10 ) Substantia nigr a (A9 ) Retrorubral nucleu s (A8 ) Olfactory bul b Anterior olfactor y nucle i Lateral septa l nucleu s Piriform corte x Amygdala Ventral entorhina l corte x Suprarhinal corte x Pregenual anteromedia l corte x Supragenual anteromedia l corte x Perirhinal corte x an d tempora l association corte x Lateral habenula r nucleu s Locus coeruleu s Mesothalamic Ventral tegmenta l are a ( A10 ) Thalamus Diencephalospinal Dorsal an d posterio r hypothal ­ amus, zon a incerta , cauda l thalamus ( A l l ) Spinal cor d Incertohypothalamic Zona incerta , periventricula r hy ­ pothalamic nucle i ( A l l , A 1 3 , A14) Zona incerta , anterio r media l preoptic an d periventricula r hypothalamus, septu m Tuberoinfundibular an d tuberohypophyseal Arcuate an d periventricula r hypo ­ thalamic nucle i ( A 12 , A14 ) Median eminenc e Pars intermedi a an d nervos a o f pituitary Periventricular Mesencephalic periaqueducta l gray Periventricular gra y o f cauda l thalamus ( A l l ) Periaqueductal gra y Medial thalamu s an d hypoth ­ alamus Periglomerular Olfactory bul b ( A16 ) Dendritic processe s int o olfactor y glomeruli Retinal Mainlyi n amacrin e cell s o f inne r nuclear laye r o f retin a Local dendriti c projection s a Modifie d fro m Bjorklun d an d Lindval l (1984) ; an d Fux e et al.

2) ;th enerv eendin gdensit yi sparticularl yhig h inth ePVN ,anterio rhypothalami c η. trigemini ,an di nth ereticula rformatio no fth e brainstem. ,1984b) . vagi ,an dth en . Th ecel l IV. 2 Noradrenergic Innervation of the Hypothalamus"* Nucleus are a Anterior hypothalamu s Organum vasculosu m lamin a terminali s Interstitial nucleu s o f th e stri a terminalis Preoptic periventricula r are a Medial preopti c are a Lateral preopti c are a Dorsal Ventral Suprachiasmatic nucleu s Anterior hypothalami c are a Anterior hypothalami c nucleu s Retrochiasmatic are a Paraventricular nucleu s Magnocellular divisio n Parvocellular divisio n Supraoptic nucleu s Dorsal Ventral Nucleus circulari s Lateral hypothalami c are a Intermediate hypothalamu s Ventromedial nucleu s Dorsomedial nucleu s Dorsal Ventral Dorsal hypothalami c are a Periventricular nucleu s Ventral tubera l are a Lateral hypothalami c are a Arcuate nucleu s Median eminenc e Posterior hypothalamu s Ventral premammilar y are a Dorsal premammilar y are a Periventricular nucleu s Medial mammillar y nucleu s Pars mediali s Pars laterali s Lateral mammillar y nucleu s Supramammillary nucleu s Posterior hypothalami c are a Tuberomammillary nucleu s a Ke y t o symbols 5 + , ver y dense EN, encapsulate innervation.

Catecholamines A. Emphasi swil lb egive nt oth efluorescenc e histochemicaldat awhic hhav eallowe dth evisualizatio no fC Aan d5-H Tnerv e terminals,th estud yo fthei rtopographica ldistribution ,an dth eanalysi so fthei r relationt oothe rneurona lsystems . Sinceth eidentificatio no fN Ei nth ebrai nan dth edeterminatio no fit s distributioni nvariou sarea so fth eCN Smuc hprogres sha sbee nmad ei nth elas t 30year si nmappin go fN Eneuron san di nunderstandin gthei rrol ei nth econtro l ofcentra lfunction san dth esecretio no fhypothalami can dpituitar yhormone s (Muller et al,1977c) .

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