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The existence of many line-items often constrains managerial flexibility by detailing the specific inputs that can be used for specific areas. The presence of an excessive number of line-items can also hinder other practices designed to strengthen fiscal discipline, such as top-down budgeting. Relaxing central input controls not only increases the effective use of resources, but can also foster accountability – to some extent eliminating excuses for not delivering agreed outputs and outcomes. In such systems the legislature might be better equipped to oversee the process by shifting its attention from input to output considerations.

A government official who ordinarily remains in this position when there is a change in Government. e. a person who generally does not remain in this position when there is a change in Government. 1 in the Statistical annex). 1 in the Statistical annex). The most common responsibilities of the CBA are drafting the budget circular, developing the Executive Budget proposal, negotiating with the line ministries, producing supplementary budgets, determining ceilings for line ministries, and producing mid-year and end-of-year reports.

1-3) The Central Budget Authority (CBA) is the hub of the central government budget process. Almost all OECD countries have localised the CBA with the Ministry of Finance and/or Economy. The CBA may be located in one directorate (department) of the ministry, normally the Budget Department as is the case in Austria, Estonia, Finland, France, Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden, or within a combination of several departments within the Ministry of Finance. Norway has split the CBA between the Budget Department and the Economics Department.

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