By Eugene Toy, Rahul Jandial, Josh Neman, Evan Snyder
Examine NEUROSCIENCE within the CONTEXT OF REAL-LIFE sufferers and get ready FOR THE forums
Experience with scientific circumstances is essential to excelling at the USMLE Step 1 and shelf assessments, and finally to delivering sufferers with efficient medical care. Case records: Neuroscience presents forty nine true-to-life instances that illustrate crucial strategies during this box. every one case comprises an easy-tounderstand dialogue correlated to crucial simple technology recommendations, definitions of key phrases, neuroscience pearls, and USMLE-style overview questions.
With Case documents, you'll research rather than memorize.
• study from forty nine high-yield instances, every one with board-style questions and key-point pearls
• grasp advanced ideas via transparent and concise discussions
• perform with assessment inquiries to make stronger learning
• Polish your method of scientific problem-solving
• excellent for scientific, actual treatment, and neuroscience scholars getting ready for direction assessments and the Boards
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Extra resources for Case Files Neuroscience (2nd Edition)
The most important aspect of the diagnosis of AD is the exclusion of treatable forms of dementia. While imaging of the brain may demonstrate diffuse atrophy with thinning of the cerebral gyri and enlargement of the sulci and ventricles in the advanced stages, it is more important to identify mass lesions, such as chronic subdural hematomas, which may account for the symptoms. On histological specimens, AD is associated with the diffuse loss of neurons in the cerebral cortex. In particular, neuronal loss in the nucleus basalis of Meynert is associated with decreased levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
It is important to note, however, that not all axons are encased in myelin sheaths. Myelin consists of lipids and membrane proteins, which are wrapped in circumferential layers around segments of axons. The intervals between adjacent myelin sheaths are called the nodes of Ranvier and are important for conduction of the action potential. During the development of the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells become closely associated with developing bundles of axons within the nerve. indd 33 7/30/14 7:33 PM 34 CASE FILES: Neuroscience Schwann cell provides a single segment of the myelin sheath for the developing axon.
2 B. The period referred to in the question is caused by inactivation of voltagegated sodium channels and is known as the absolute refractory period. During this time period, which immediately follows repolarization, the voltage-gated sodium channels assume a configuration in which they will not open, regardless of membrane potential. Undershoot hyperpolarization, the time following the action potential when the membrane is more negative than the resting potential, is responsible for the relative refractory period.