By Aaron B. Caughey
Circumstances & ideas Step 1: Pathophysiology evaluate is helping scientific scholars organize for USMLE Step 1 through combining simple technological know-how themes with medical facts. operating via 88 scientific instances, the reader earnings event studying circumstances, learns vintage displays of universal ailments and syndromes, and integrates simple technological know-how innovations with scientific purposes. Sections disguise cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, hematology, oncology, endocrinology, rheumatology, replica, and neuroscience. situations are by way of USMLE-style questions with solutions and rationales. Thumbnail and Key proposal packing containers spotlight key proof. A significant other web site bargains totally searchable textual content on-line.
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Additional info for Cases & Concepts Step 1: Pathophysiology Review
A PFO is an open conduit between the superior portion of the septum secundum on the RA side and the septum primum on the LA side. Postnatally, the foramen is normally held shut by overlapping of the two septa and the higher pressure in the LA. However, high RA pressures can cause the two septa to separate, allowing paradoxical embolization from right to left to occur. Pathophysiology In the setting of a large ASD, a chronic left-to-right shunt imposes a volume overload on the RV and RA, resulting in right-sided chamber hypertrophy and dilatation.
As a result of the chaotic depolarizations, no coordinated contractile function can occur, and cardiac output suddenly declines. VF presents with sudden loss of consciousness with subsequent sudden cardiac death if electrical defibrillation is not emergently performed. Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a pre-excitation syndrome in which ventricular depolarization occurs by an anomalous conduction pathway before the ventricle is depolarized by the normal AV conduction pathway (Fig.
PVCs are the result of ectopic ventricular foci generating an action potential independent of the SA and AV nodal conduction system. PVCs appear as wide QRS depolarizations because the electrical activity travels slowly through myocardium rather than through the normal conduction system. In people with no significant structural heart disease, PVCs do not progress to VT or VF. • Figure 1-23. Ventricular tachycardia: a wide-complex tachycardia defined as three or more premature ventricular contractions in a row.