By Julia C Devlin
This crucial ebook surveys significant monetary matters within the improvement of nations within the heart East and North Africa (MENA) quarter in view that global warfare II. It stories the most important demanding situations dealing with the sector in relocating in the direction of higher marketplace orientation and integration with the worldwide financial system. It additionally features a dialogue of instruments and strategies utilized by improvement practitioners and in brief examines problems with relief effectiveness. issues lined contain styles of progress, monetary reform concepts, the position of OPEC and oil in improvement, water shortage and agricultural regulations, inhabitants, schooling suggestions, hard work markets and unemployment, exchange, nearby integration and migration, the funding weather, monetary industry improvement, gender, poverty concerns and the influence of clash.
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Extra info for Challenges of Economic Development in the Middle East and North Africa Region (World Science Studies in International Economics)
This chapter seeks to answer the following questions. First, what do existing theoretical and empirical studies of growth tell us about challenges of sustaining growth in the MENA region? What underlying factors drove the choice of development strategies in the post-WWII period to the 1980s? Are there significant differences in growth and development strategies for this period across countries in the region? F DEVELOPMENT POLICY AND PLANNING Economic development can be defined as a sustainable increase in living standards including material consumption, education, health, and environmental protection (World Bank, 1991).
If the additions to the labor force are more productive than the existing labor force, more workers will add more to output than they would under the formula above based on labor’s share — this additional amount would be included in the residual. qxd 12/22/2009 10:52 AM Page 43 State Formation, Consolidation, and Development, 1960s–1980s 43 adjustments have been made, the residual is more clearly linked with technical change, which can include innovations as broadly defined as the introduction of personal computers, containerized shipping systems and others.
The number of broadband subscribers, or population with access to cable modems and other high-speed technologies per 1000 people was less than average levels in low-income regions in 2005. qxd 34 12/21/2009 4:07 PM Page 34 Julia C Devlin 120 MENA Middle Income Countries 100 80 60 40 20 0 Primary enrollment Secondary Tertiary enrollment (% relevant age enrollment (% (% relevant age group) relevant age group) group) Adult Literacy % males 15 & over Adult Literacy % females 15 & over Source: World Bank database; data subject to revision.