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4 16. If, (3a), [generation and corruption] occur at their common boundaries, then either it is along the whole of the boundary or along some part of it and not others. Now if it is along some part of it and not others, then—assuming that they do not have a cause other than themselves—they must differ by nature, but we have already stated that [the elements] do not differ by nature. Therefore, it remains that the fire that is adjacent to their common boundary would be a sphere of air of uniform height, and the air [that is adjacent to their common boundary] would be a sphere of fire of uniform height.
5 [This also turns] their hair curly and frizzy, as when hair is close to fire and then quickly is [dropped] into it. It makes their lower parts (I mean their limbs) thin, their noses wide, their eyes large and bulging, their lips protuberant. It makes them tall because the moisture of their lower parts is attracted to their higher parts. They are more irritable and infuriated as a result of the excess of heat and dryness in them. Also their judgments change erratically because they are overcome by anger and passion.
By “final [cause]” I mean that for the sake of which the craftsman makes the form of the coin one with the gold, that is, to gain something of benefit by the coin and to obtain what is sought by it. Since the natural causes do not exceed these four causes, these four that we have mentioned are causes of the generation and corruption of everything subject to generation and corruption. indd 3 7/9/2007 6:32:48 PM 4 Classical Arabic Philosophy 9. Every thing subject to generation, then, is in some matter or other, and so one cause of the generation and corruption of everything subject to generation and corruption is a material [cause], which is [the thing’s] matter from which it was generated or corrupted.