By Thomas Lengauer
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Additional resources for Combinatorial Algorithms for Integrated Circuit Layout
The masks can be thought of as frames of photographic film with black (opaque) and white (transparent) regions on them. In many fabrication processes, the masks actually are turned into celluloid, but there are other fabrication methods in which a digital encoding of the information on the masks directly drives the machines that fabricate the circuit. Each mask describes the structural pattern of some material deposited on the silicon during the fabrication of the circuit. For instance, one mask contains the locations of the wires run on top of the circuit in metal to make connections between transistors.
Using hierarchy we reduce the amount of local storage required to whatever is necessary to store small neighborhoods of a cell instance, and it keeps low the overhead connected with the swapping of storage segments. The complexity of such a hierarchical solution of a CAD problem is generally much higher than what we could achieve if we could work on the folded hierarchy, but, for many problems, this is the best we can do. In some cases, a partial expansion of the folded hierarchy that does not go all the way to the segmented hierarchy will do the trick.
This can be done such that contact cuts do not connect all but a subset of adjacent wiring layers (partial via). One can even connect different sets of wiring layers above the same point on the printed 26 Chapter 1. Introduction to Circuit Layout circuit board (stacked vias). The rules pertaining to vias can be quite involved. 14 shows the kind of layouts produced for printed circuit boards. Despite these differences, there are enough similarities between PCB layout and chip layout, that we can draw from the same set of layout algorithms.