By Gerard Blanchet, Bertrand Dupouy(auth.)
This e-book lays out the ideas essential to know the way a working laptop or computer works.
For purposes of readability, the authors have intentionally selected examples that observe to machines from all eras, with no need to water down the contents of the e-book. This selection is helping to teach how suggestions, innovations and performances have developed because the first computers.
The ebook is split into 5 components. the 1st 4, that are of accelerating hassle, are the middle of the booklet: “Elements of a simple Architecture”, “Programming version and Operation”, “Memory Hierarchy”, “Parallelism and function Enhancement”. the ultimate half presents tricks and options to the workouts within the booklet in addition to appendices. The reader might method every one half independently in accordance with their past wisdom and goals.
Chapter 1 advent (pages 3–16): Gerard Blanchet and Bertrand Dupouy
Chapter 2 the fundamental Modules (pages 17–34): Gerard Blanchet and Bertrand Dupouy
Chapter three The illustration of data (pages 35–54): Gerard Blanchet and Bertrand Dupouy
Chapter four directions (pages 57–74): Gerard Blanchet and Bertrand Dupouy
Chapter five The Processor (pages 75–102): Gerard Blanchet and Bertrand Dupouy
Chapter 6 Inputs and Outputs (pages 103–136): Gerard Blanchet and Bertrand Dupouy
Chapter 7 reminiscence (pages 139–156): Gerard Blanchet and Bertrand Dupouy
Chapter eight Caches (pages 157–174): Gerard Blanchet and Bertrand Dupouy
Chapter nine digital reminiscence (pages 175–204): Gerard Blanchet and Bertrand Dupouy
Chapter 10 Pipeline Architectures (pages 207–234): Gerard Blanchet and Bertrand Dupouy
Chapter eleven instance of an structure (pages 235–260): Gerard Blanchet and Bertrand Dupouy
Chapter 12 Caches in a Multiprocessor atmosphere (pages 261–286): Gerard Blanchet and Bertrand Dupouy
Chapter thirteen Superscalar Architectures (pages 287–324): Gerard Blanchet and Bertrand Dupouy
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Extra resources for Computer Architecture
F × 2e 0 if s = 0 if s = 1 if e = −8, s = 0, f = 0 The following reserved value must be used to represent zero in the short ﬂoating-point format: “e = −8, s = 0, f = 0". An exponent equal to −8 is actually reserved for special cases. 1) Write the representations for the maximum and minimum positive and negative values. 2) Write the representation of x = 10−2 . 310 . PART 2 Programming Model and Operation Chapter 4 Instructions As we have seen in previous chapters, any activity of a machine corresponds to the execution of a program.
PART 2 Programming Model and Operation Chapter 4 Instructions As we have seen in previous chapters, any activity of a machine corresponds to the execution of a program. This program comprises of a series of instructions deﬁning the elementary operations that the machine has to execute. These operations require gaining access to operands that may be found in memory, in working registers, in the registers of exchange units, etc. 101110 Instruction Code Inst. Reg. 1. Accessing the instructions and the operands The instruction code must identify three types of information: the operation performed, the operands and the means of gaining access to these operands.
The processing unit The processing unit ensures the execution of elementary operations “speciﬁed” by the control unit (“processing indications”). The information handled and the intermediate results are stored in memorization elements internal to the processor, known as registers. No operation is made directly with the memory cells: they are instead copied into registers, which may or may not be accessible to the programmer, before being processed. The control unit, the processing unit and the registers are connected to each other, which makes it possible to load or read in parallel all of their bits.