By Gordon S. Kino, Timothy R. Corle
This e-book presents a accomplished advent to the sphere of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineers. The ebook concentrates generally on tools: the Confocal Scanning Optical Microscope (CSOM), and the Optical Interference Microscope (OIM). A entire dialogue of the speculation and layout of the Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscope (NSOM) can also be given. The textual content discusses the sensible facets of establishing a confocal scanning optical microscope or optical interference microscope, and the purposes of those microscopes to section imaging, organic imaging, and semiconductor inspection and metrology.A entire theoretical dialogue of the intensity and transverse solution is given with emphasis put on the sensible result of the theoretical calculations and the way those can be utilized to aid comprehend the operation of those microscopes. Key good points * offers a finished creation to the sphere of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineers * Explains many functional functions of scanning optical and interference microscopy in such various fields as biology and semiconductor metrology * Discusses in theoretical phrases the foundation of the enhanced intensity and transverse answer of scanning optical and interference microscopes with emphasis at the useful result of the theoretical calculations * Considers the sensible features of establishing a confocal scanning or interference microscope and explores a number of the layout tradeoffs made for microscopes utilized in quite a few purposes * Discusses the speculation and layout of near-field optical microscopes * Explains section imaging within the scanning optical and interference microscopes
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Additional resources for Confocal scanning optical microscopy and related imaging systems
All these scanning techniques have been employed in various forms of commercial confocal microscopes. They will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 2. The major advantage of the CSOM over a standard optical microscope is that a defocused image disappears in the CSOM, whereas it becomes blurred in a standard microscope. Before the development of the confocal microscope, to obtain good cross-sectional images of biological samples, it was necessary to slice the material into thin layers and mount each slice onto a microscope slide.
A large-area detector, such as the human eye or a video camera made up of many pixels, detects the image. In the standard microscope, a Wavelength h 633 nm 546 nm 436 nm 365 nm 248 nm Transverse resolution dcr(3 dB) 248 nm 214 nm 171 nm 143 nm 97 nm point on the sample is imaged as a diffraction-limited spot on the detector by the objective lens. The amplitude of the image field at the detector of a point object is given by the Airy function h(r). Since the source is incoherent, in an ideal instrument the intensity PSF of the microscope is equal to the square of the amplitude response of the objective lens Is(r ) = Ih(r)l 2.
The corresponding point on the reference mirror will be illuminated by the same light components from the source, which travel through the same path lengths to the corresponding point on the detector array. The spots formed at the detector array will have the same spatial and temporal variations and so will be perfectly correlated with each other. However, if the sample is out of focus, the situation shown in Fig. 30 will occur; the spatial and temporal correlation of the two spots will not be perfect and the output correlation signal will decrease just as for critical illumination.