By Teuvo Kohonen
As a result of continuous development within the large-scale integration of semiconductor circuits, parallel computing ideas can already be met in reasonably cheap sys tems: various examples exist in photo processing, for which specified not easy ware is implementable with really modest assets even by way of nonprofessional designers. ideas of content material addressing, if completely understood, can thereby be utilized successfully utilizing ordinary elements. however, mass garage according to associative ideas nonetheless exists simply within the lengthy time period plans of machine technologists. this case is a little bit stressed by way of the truth that convinced expectancies are held for the advance of recent garage media comparable to optical stories and "spin glasses" (metal alloys with low-density magnetic impurities). Their applied sciences, besides the fact that, would possibly not ripen until eventually after "fifth iteration" desktops were outfitted. it sounds as if software program tools for content material addressing, specifically these in keeping with hash coding rules, are nonetheless retaining their place firmly, and some recommendations were built lately. As they want no specific undefined, one may possibly anticipate that they are going to unfold to a large circle of clients. This monograph is predicated on an in depth literature survey, so much of which used to be released within the First version. i've got additional Chap. ?, which includes a evaluation of newer paintings. This up to date ebook now has references to over 1200 unique guides. within the enhancing of the hot fabric, I bought useful support from Anneli HeimbUrger, M. Sc. , and Mrs. Leila Koivisto.
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Additional info for Content-Addressable Memories
1 ) where the function bitcount S determines the number of elements in the set S which attain the value logical 1; the Boolean expression occurring as an element in the above set is the EXCLUSIVE OR (EXOR) function of ~i and ni. The restriction imposed on the lengths of representations, or numbers of elements i'n sets, can be avoi ded in many ways (cf, e. , the defi niti ons of Levenshtein distances a bit later on). , the indices of all bit positions with value 1. Denote the number of elements in set S by n(S).
9. The effective output signals are obtained by another combinational circuit. Time delays Combinational circuit s s Combinational circuit Fig. 9. Sequential circuit, basic form usually exist in the internal signal paths or in the feedback; it is the amount of feedback delay which sets the time scale in the dynamic (sequential) process. One of the central objectives in the theory of automata is to devise mappings f and g, such that maximum-length output sequences can be produced by a minimum number of state variables.
W-l} are assigned in some order whereby a string of characters, written as k = dNdN_l ... dldO' may be considered as the representation of an integer in the base of w. 1 ) v For instance, for the English alphabet, one may choose A = 0, B = I, Z = 25. The word 'ABE' thus has the numerical value 0 • 26 2 + 1 • 26 + 4 = 30. It has turned out that this method works rather well in the numerical conversion of English words and names. Relating to another application of hash coding, the following example shows how index variables can be converted into a numerical form suitable for hash coding.