The OECD is a distinct foium the place the governments of 30 democracies interact to handle the commercial, social and environmental demanding situations of globalisation. The OECD is additionally on the vanguard of efforts to appreciate and to aid governments reply to new advancements and issues, equivalent to company governance, the knowledge economic system and the demanding situations of an growing older inhabitants. The business enterprise offers a surroundings the place governments can examine coverage reports, search solutions to universal difficulties, establish solid perform and paintings to co-ordinate family and foreign regulations.
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Additional info for Decoupling the Environmental Impacts of Transport from Economic Growth
In 2002, transportation vehicles, ships, aircraft, and locomotives emitted 58% of US carbon monoxide (CO), 45% of its nitrogen oxides (NOx), 3% of its volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 4% of its particulates, 8%, of its ammonia, and 5% of its sulfur dioxide (BTS, 2006). With the exception of ammonia emissions (which grew 54%), other transport-related air emissions declined between 1992 and 2002. Most of these declined by at least 30%; however, NOx emissions decreased initially only 8% but then fell by 18% (by 2002).
In 2002, highway vehicles emitted almost all of the transport sector share of CO, 78% of the sector’s NOx, and 77% of all its VOC emissions. Marine vessels and railroad locomotives contribute 11% and 9%, respectively, of transportation’s NOx emissions. Other vehicles, such as recreational boats, airport service vehicles, and road maintenance equipment, contributed 22% of the transport sector’s VOC emissions. In the EU, emissions of acidifying substances, particulate matter, and ozone precursors from transport fell by 30-40% from 1990 to 2003 (excluding international aviation and maritime transport) (EEA, 2006).
In addition to the transport modes covered by the Kyoto Protocol, international aviation and maritime shipping also produce significant GHG emissions. Aviation is growing faster than any other transport mode and CO2 emissions from that source grew by 62% in the EU15 between 1990 and 2003. Aviation now accounts for 14% of transport based EU15 CO2 emissions (including international aviation). Maritime transport is responsible for 13% of the world’s total transport GHG emissions at the moment. , 2005).